smoking cessation aids and how they affect use of other
tobacco products by smokers and nonsmokers ( 51).
Even though smoking rates among U.S. adults and youths
have declined, it is clear that researchers, clinicians,
advocates, and policy makers must continue to work
together if we are to eradicate one of the biggest threats to
public health. One step to achieving this goal is the decision
by the FDA to extend its regulatory oversight to all tobacco
products, including e-cigarettes, cigars, pipe tobacco, and
hookah tobacco (see sidebar on Enhancing Tobacco Control
through FDA Regulation, p. 29). Additional strategies,
such as further raising taxes on prices and/or adding
prominent pictorial warning labels on cigarette packs,
also need to be evaluated ( 38, 52). Moreover, we need
to use current tobacco cessation strategies more widely
because approaches such as use of nicotine replacement
therapy and prescription medication as well as counseling
have been shown to be effective in enhancing the chances
of long-term abstinence from smoking ( 38).
MAINTAIN A HEALTHY
WEIGHT, EAT A HEALTHY
DIET, AND STAY ACTIVE
Researchers estimate that 20 percent of all cancers
diagnosed in the United States, including some of the
most deadly types of cancer such as pancreatic cancer, are
related to people being over weight or obese, being inactive,
and/or eating a poor diet ( 38). Therefore, maintaining a
healthy weight, being physically active, and consuming a
balanced diet are effective ways a person can lower his or
her risk of developing or dying from cancer (see sidebar on
Reduce Your Risk for Cancer Linked to Being Overweight
or Obese, Being Inactive, and/or Consuming a Poor Diet).
Exactly how obesity increases a person’s risk for cancer is
not well understood, but accumulating evidence indicates
a critical role for inflammatory immune cells within the
fat tissue ( 53).
Being over weight or obese as an adult increases a person’s
risk for 14 different types of cancer (see Figure 6, p. 31)
( 55). According to the most recent data available, in 2012, it
children ages 5 to 17 are projected
to be obese by 2025 ( 54).
Be as lean as possible without
becoming underweight, because
14 types of cancer have been
causally linked to being obese or
overweight (see Figure 6, p. 31).
Be physically active for at least 30
minutes every day, because regular
physical activity can decrease risk
for certain cancers .
Limit consumption of energy-dense
foods (foods high in fats and/or
added sugars and/or low in
fiber) and avoid sugary drinks,
because these contribute to weight gain.
Eat more of a variety of vegetables,
fruits, whole grains, and beans,
because these foods have a low
energy density and, therefore,
promote healthy weight.
Limit intake of red meat and avoid
processed meat (e.g., hot dogs, bacon,
and salami) because these foods can
increase risk for colorectal cancer.
If consumed at all, limit alcoholic
drinks, because alcohol
consumption can increase risk for six
types of cancer: breast, colorectal,
esophageal, liver, stomach, and
Reduce Your Risk for
Cancers Linked to Being
Overweight or Obese,
Being Inactive, and/or
Consuming a Poor Diet
Research from the World Cancer Research Fund
International shows that about one-fifth of all
U.S. cancers and one-third of the most common
types of cancer diagnosed in the United States
are attributable to being overweight or obese,
being inactive, and/or eating poorly. As such,
among their recommendations are the following:
Adapted from ( 25)