Several steps to promote physical activity for all segments
of the U.S. population are outlined in Step it up! The
Surgeon General’s Call to Action to Promote Walking and
Walkable Communities and in the U. S. National Physical
Activity Plan ( 57, 58). Nevertheless, concerted efforts by
individuals, families, communities, schools, workplaces,
institutions, health care professionals, media, industry,
government, and multinational bodies are required to
implement any strategy to promote the maintenance of
a healthy weight and the participation in regular physical
In addition, intensive efforts by all stakeholders are needed
if we are to increase the number of people who consume
a balanced diet, such as that recommended by the U.S.
Department of Health and Human Services and the U.S.
Department of Agriculture in the 2015—2020 Dietary
Guidelines for Americans ( 59). One recent policy initiative
to help people make better informed food choices and
meet the new dietary guidelines is the FDA decision to
change the regulatory requirements for the information
that manufacturers must provide on nutrition facts labels
From 2007 to 2010,
of U.S. adults did not meet U.S.
government recommendations for
daily fruit intake and
did not meet the recommendations
for daily vegetable intake ( 61).
WEIGHING THE EVIDENCE:
CANCERS CAUSED BY OBESITY
of esophageal cancer
Fourteen types of cancer—the
adenocarcinoma subtype of
esophageal cancer, advanced
prostate cancer, meningioma,
multiple myeloma, and
gallbladder, kidney, liver,
ovarian, pancreatic, stomach,
thyroid, and postmenopausal
breast cancers—have all
been directly linked to being
overweight or obese ( 50, 204).
Figure adapted from Ref. ( 24)