burning of an organic material, much like tobacco smoking.
The need for this research is driven by the growing number
of states that have legalized marijuana use for medical and/
or recreational purposes (see Figure 5, p. 26).
A number of new tobacco control policy initiatives have
MAINTAIN A HEALTHY
been recently announced in the United States, the most
prominent of which is the decision by the FDA to extend
its regulatory oversight to all tobacco products, including
e-cigarettes, cigars, pipe tobacco, and hookah tobacco
(see sidebar on Enhancing Tobacco Control Through
FDA Regulation). In addition, a growing number of
cities, counties, and states, most recently California, have
passed legislation raising the minimum age of sale of
tobacco products to 21 ( 47). This is important because
nearly everyone who buys cigarettes for U.S. minors is
under the age of 21 ( 47), and it has been predicted that
if implemented nationwide, such legislation could lead
to a 12 percent reduction in smoking prevalence ( 48).
WEIGHT, EAT A HEALTHY
DIET, AND STAY ACTIVE
Researchers estimate that one in every five new cases of
cancer diagnosed in the United States is related to people
being over weight or obese, being inactive, and/or eating
a poor diet ( 49). Therefore, maintaining a healthy weight,
being physically active, and consuming a balanced diet
are effective ways a person can lower his or her risk of
developing or dying from cancer (see sidebar on Reduce
Your Risk for Cancer Linked to Being Overweight or Obese,
Being Inactive, and/or Consuming a Poor Diet, p. 29).
Permits FDA regulation of vaporizers,
vape pens, cigars, hookah pens,
e-cigarettes, e-pipes, and all
other electronic nicotine
delivery systems, as well as
future tobacco products
not yet on the market.
Requires a premarket review process
and authorization of new tobacco
products that reviews manufacturers’
claims and requires the disclosure of
ingredients and reporting of harmful
or potentially harmful components.
Prohibits the sale of tobacco
products to individuals under
the age of 18 and requires the
display of health warnings in
advertisements and on tobacco
and tobacco-related products.
Prohibits the distribution of
Defines content and size
of warning labels and requires
additional warnings for
Defines establishments that mix or prepare
e-liquids or create or modify aerosolizing
apparatus for direct sale to consumers as
tobacco product manufacturers that are
subject to regulation as manufacturers.
ENHANCING TOBACCO CONTROL THROUGH
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has had the authority to regulate tobacco products
since 2009. While the agency exercised regulatory authority over some of these products, such as
cigarettes, others remained unregulated—until now. In 2016, the FDA extended its authority to cover
all tobacco-based products through an amendment to the 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and
Tobacco Control Act (Tobacco Control Act). The key provisions of this extended rule include: