study suggested that the way that public education messages
are framed can dramatically influence whether or not an
individual modifies his or her behavior because it showed
that dieting individuals who saw a message focusing on
the negative aspects of unhealthy food actually increased
their consumption of unhealthy foods ( 32).
ELIMINATE TOBACCO USE
Smoking tobacco exposes a person to toxicants that can
cause genetic mutations, increasing his or her risk of
developing not only lung cancer, but also 17 other types
of cancer (see Figure 4, p. 25) ( 33). It is responsible for
one in every three cases of cancer diagnosed in the United
States each year ( 27). Therefore, one of the most effective
ways a person can lower his or her risk of developing
cancer, as well as other smoking-related conditions such
as cardiovascular, metabolic, and lung diseases, is to avoid
or eliminate tobacco use.
Since the relationship between tobacco use and cancer
was first brought to the public’s attention in 1964 ( 37), the
RISKY BUSINESS FIGURE 3
Research has identified numerous factors that increase an individual’s risk
for developing cancer. By modifying behavior, individuals can eliminate
or reduce many of these risks and thereby reduce their risk of cancer.
Developing and implementing additional public education and policy
initiatives could help further reduce the burden of cancers related to
preventable cancer risk factors.
Data from Ref. ( 27); figure adapted from Ref. ( 28).
OCCUPATIONALEXPOSURES ULTRAVIOLETLIGHT/IONIZING RADIATIONEXPOSURE OBESITY/OVERWEIGHT PHYSICALINACTIVITY ALCOHOL ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS PATHOGENS DIET REPRODUCTIVEFACTORS PRESCRIPTIONDRUGS
Through the Division of Cancer
Cancer Risk Factors
Prevention and Control, the
Centers for Disease
work with national cancer
organizations, state health agencies,
and other key groups to develop,
implement, and promote effective
strategies for preventing and