TYPES OF RADIOTHERAPY INTERVENTIONAL RADIOLOGY
places small radioactive
sources in or next to the
tumor. There are two
forms of brachytherapy.
the tumor; for example,
placement directly into the
prostate for the treatment
of prostate cancer or into
the tumor vasculature (see
radioembolization at right).
Temporary placement of
radioactive sources. in
one form of this treatment,
moderately active sources
are placed for 1-4 days; for
example, in the treatment
of soft-tissue sarcoma. in
“high dose rate”
a highly active
source is inserted
for a few minutes;
for example, in
the curative treatment
of cervical cancer.
or infusion of
which are natural or
of elements that are
unstable and emit
as they stabilize,
as a therapeutic
include, the use of
iodine-131 to treat
thyroid cancer or
Y- 90 ibritumomab
(zevalin) to treat
combines imaging with minimally invasive
techniques designed to treat cancer locally,
Chemoembolization is a process by which
therapeutic-coated particles are
injected directly into the tumor
vasculature in order to prevent
blood flow and increase the
therapeutic concentration to
very high levels.
Cryoablation is a technique wherein needles
are directly inserted into the tumor and
cooled to very cold temperatures, causing
tumor cell death.
High-intensity focused ultrasound
applies high-intensity focused ultrasound
waves to locally heat and destroy
Microwave ablation uses microwave
radiation to locally
heat and destroy tumors.
Radioembolization is the injection of
radioactive microspheres directly into
the tumor vasculature; for example, injection of 90 Y
microspheres into a liver tumor via
the hepatic artery.
Radiofrequency ablation is a
technique wherein needles are
directly inserted into the tumor
and an electrical current used to heat the
needle, causing tumor cell death.
USES OF RADIOTHERAPY
radiotherapy is often used in combination with
surgery, chemotherapy, and immunotherapy to
control or eliminate cancer.
CURATIVE radiotherapy seeks to completely eliminate a
cancer, particularly small cancers, as well as locally advanced
cancers as part of combination therapy.
NEOADJUVAN T radiotherapy is used to reduce or control a
cancer so that it can be subsequently treated by a different
method such as surgery.
ADJUVANT radiotherapy seeks to eliminate any remaining
cancer following prior treatment.
PALLIATIVE radiotherapy is used to reduce or control symptoms
of disease when cure by another method is not possible.