the global burden of cancer could be significantly reduced
through more effective implementation of these strategies.
In the United States, the development of strategies to
increase uptake of the three FDA-approved HPV vaccines
could have an immense impact on cancer prevention (see
Cancer Prevention, Detection, Interception, and Diagnosis,
p. 58). The most recent estimates from the Centers for
Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) show that in 2013,
only 6 percent of men and 37 percent of women ages 19 to
26 had received one or more dose of HPV vaccine ( 79). In
addition, in 2012, only 33 percent of girls ages 13 to 17 had
received the recommended three doses of HPV vaccine
( 80). This low coverage stands in stark contrast to that in
other high-income countries, such as Australia and the
United Kingdom, and Rwanda, a low-income country that
recently reported HPV vaccination of more than 90 percent
of eligible girls following implementation of a national,
multisector, collaborative, school-based program ( 81, 82).
Moreover, it is estimated that in the United States, more
than 50,000 cases of cervical cancer and thousands of
cases of other HPV-related cancers, including many anal,
genital, and oral cancers, could be prevented if 80 percent
of those for whom HPV vaccination is recommended—
girls and boys at age 11 or 12—were to be vaccinated ( 82).
In addition, research has shown that vaccinating boys as
well as girls has the potential not only to save lives from
oropharyngeal cancer, but also to save health care costs ( 83).