the likelihood that nonsmokers—particularly children—or
former smokers will start smoking combustible cigarettes,
or if they discourage smokers from quitting. Therefore,
more research is needed so that we can fully understand the
health consequences of e-cigarette use, their value as tobacco
cessation aids, and their effects on the use of combustible
tobacco products by smokers and nonsmokers ( 41) (see
sidebar on E-cigarettes: What We Know and What We Need
to Know, p. 38). The need for this information is particularly
pressing because recent data show that in 2014, e-cigarettes
were the most commonly used tobacco product among U.S.
middle and high school students, with use of these devices
tripling from 2013 to 2014 ( 48).
Maintain a Healthy Weight, Eat a
Healthy Diet, and Stay Active
Researchers estimate that one in every three new cases of
cancer diagnosed in the United States is related to being
overweight or obese, being inactive, and/or consuming a
poor diet ( 15, 34). Therefore, maintaining a healthy weight,
participating in regular physical activity, and eating a
balanced diet are effective ways people can lower their risk
of developing or dying from cancer ( 49) (see sidebar on
Reduce Your Risk for Cancers Linked to Being Overweight or
Obese, Being Inactive, and/or Consuming a Poor Diet, p. 40).
In fact, two recent studies that followed 650,000 individuals
for more than 10 years showed that healthy lifestyles reduced
cancer incidence by 10–15 percent, and cancer mortality
by 20–25 percent, in addition to 40–50 percent reductions
in cardiovascular-associated mortality and 25–40 percent
reductions in all-cause mortality ( 50, 51).
it is estimated that the total
u.s. economic costs due to
smoking are now more than
each year, including
$132.5 billion for direct medical care
$151 billion for lost productivity due to
premature death, and
$5.6 billion for lost productivity due to
exposure to secondhand smoke ( 36).
of cancer deaths worldwide
are attributable to smoking ( 46).