Signaling pathway/signaling network A group of molecules
in a cell that work together to control one or more cell
functions, such as cell proliferation or cell death. After the
first molecule in a pathway receives a signal, it alters the
activity of another molecule. This process is repeated until
the last molecule is activated and the cell function involved
is carried out. Abnormal activation of signaling pathways
can lead to cancer, and drugs are being developed to block
these pathways. These drugs may help prevent cancer cell
growth and kill cancer cells.
Standard of care The intervention or interventions
generally provided for a certain type of patient, illness,
or clinical circumstance. The intervention is typically
supported by evidence and/or expert consensus as
providing the best outcomes for the given circumstance.
T cell A type of immune cell that protects the body from
invading microorganisms and other foreign substances and
that destroys infected and malignant cells. A T cell is a type
of white blood cell. Also called T lymphocyte.
Therapeutic vaccine A type of therapy that uses a substance
or group of substances to stimulate the immune system
to destroy a tumor or infectious microorganisms, such as
bacteria or viruses.
Thyroid cancer Cancer that arises in the thyroid gland (a
gland at the base of the neck that makes hormones that help
control heart rate, blood pressure, body temperature, and
weight). The four main types of thyroid cancer—papillary,
follicular, medullary, and anaplastic—are named for the
kind of cells found in the cancer and how the cancer cells
look under a microscope.
Tumor An abnormal mass of tissue that results when cells
divide more than they should or do not die when they
should. Tumors may be benign (not cancer) or malignant
(cancer). Also called neoplasm.
Tumor microenvironment The cells, molecules, and blood
vessels that surround and feed a cancer cell. A cancer can
change its microenvironment, and the microenvironment
can affect how a tumor grows and spreads.
Vaccine A substance or group of substances meant to
cause the immune system to respond to a tumor or to
microorganisms such as bacteria or viruses. A vaccine
can help the body recognize and destroy cancer cells or
Waldenström macroglobulinemia A rare, indolent (
slow-growing) type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma that arises in B
cells. The lymphoma cells accumulate in the bone marrow,
lymph nodes, and spleen. Also called lymphoplasmacytic