Among the 1. 6 million U.S. residents projected to receive a
cancer diagnosis in 2014 are approximately 16,000 children
and adolescents ( 1). Fortunately, the overall ;ve-year
survival rates for children and adolescents diagnosed with
cancer are currently 83 and 85 percent, respectively, and
survivors of cancer diagnosed by the age of 19 account for
almost 3 percent of the U.S. cancer survivor population
( 3). However, as discussed by Congressman Michael McCaul
(see p. 76), these individuals face particularly demanding
challenges. In fact, a recent study found that 98 percent
of adult survivors of childhood cancer had one or more
chronic health conditions, and 68 percent have severe/
disabling or life-threatening conditions (138).
Given that cancer survivors who received their diagnoses as
children or adolescents are at extremely high risk for long-term and late treatment-related side e;ects, the Children’s
Oncology Group, an NCI-supported clinical trials group
that cares for more than 90 percent of these individuals,
developed guidelines for their long-term care (see sidebar
on Guidelines for Long-term Follow-up of Survivors of
Childhood, Adolescent, and Young Adult Cancers).
More than 108,000
cancer survivors ages 0– 19 live in
the United States ( 3).
cancer survivors are projected
to be living in the United States
on Jan. 1, 2024 ( 3).