;ree distinct phases are associated with cancer
survivorship: the time from diagnosis to the end of initial
treatment, the transition from treatment to extended
survival, and long-term survival. Recent and promising
progress realized for individuals in the ;rst group was
discussed in the previous two sections of the report (see
Treatment With Molecularly Targeted Therapeutics, p. 52,
and Treatment With Immunotherapeutics, p. 64). Here, the
discussion focuses on advances made for those in the latter
two groups, as well as the numerous challenges they face.
Each distinct phase of cancer survivorship is
accompanied by a unique set of challenges (see sidebar
on Life After Initial Cancer Treatment Ends). Moreover,
the issues facing each survivor vary, depending on
many factors, including gender, age at diagnosis, type of
cancer diagnosed, general health at diagnosis, and type
of treatment received. Importantly, it is not just cancer
survivors who are affected after a cancer diagnosis but
also their caregivers, and this population is growing
proportionally with the number of cancer survivors.
Caregivers are at risk for poor health outcomes, and
this is often compounded by the fact that a subset of
caregivers are already cancer survivors themselves.