Programmed death- 1 (PD1) A protein on the surface of
immune cells called T cells (see T cell). When PD1 attaches
to programmed death ligand- 1 (PDL1) on other immune
cells, it sends signals into the T cells to tell them to slow
down and stop acting aggressively. ;us, PD1 acts as an
immune checkpoint protein.
Protein A molecule made up of amino acids that is needed
for the body to function properly.
Radiation Energy released in the form of particle or
electromagnetic waves. Common sources of radiation
include radon gas, cosmic rays from outer space, medical
X-rays, and energy given o; by a radioisotope (unstable
form of a chemical element that releases radiation as it
breaks down and becomes more stable).
Radiotherapy ;e use of high-energy radiation from
X-rays, gamma rays, neutrons, protons, and other sources
to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors. Radiation may come
from a machine outside the body (external-beam radiation
therapy), or it may come from radioactive material placed
in the body near cancer cells (internal radiation therapy).
Systemic radiotherapy uses a radioactive substance, such
as a radiolabeled monoclonal antibody, that travels in the
blood to tissues throughout the body. Also called irradiation
and radiation therapy.
Receptor A protein in a cell that attaches to speci;c
molecules, like hormones, from outside the cell, in a lock-and-key manner, producing a speci;c e;ect on the cell—for
example, initiating cell proliferation. Receptors are most
commonly found spanning the membrane surrounding a
cell but can be located within cells.
Sentinel lymph node the lymph node or lymph nodes to
which a cancer is most likely to spread from the initial
tumor. ;e presence or absence of cancer cells in these
nodes helps determine the stage of disease.
Signaling pathway/signaling network A group of molecules
in a cell that work together to control one or more cell
functions, such as cell proliferation or cell death. A;er the
;rst molecule in a pathway receives a signal, it activates
another molecule. ;is process is repeated until the last
molecule is activated and the cell function involved is
carried out. Abnormal activation of signaling pathways can
lead to cancer, and drugs are being developed to block these
pathways. ;ese drugs may help prevent cancer cell growth
and kill cancer cells.
Standard of care ;e intervention or interventions generally
provided for a certain type of patient, illness, or clinical
circumstance. ;e intervention is typically supported by
evidence and/or expert consensus as providing the best
outcomes for the given circumstance.
Surrogate endpoint A direct measure, other than overall
survival, of how a patient functions, feels, or survives that
is used to determine when to stop a clinical trial. Surrogate
endpoints are o;en used when the primary endpoint is
undesired (e.g., death) or when the number of events is very
small, thus making it impractical to conduct a clinical trial
to gather a statistically signi;cant number of endpoints.
T cell A type of immune cell that protects the body from
invading microorganisms and other foreign substances and
that destroys infected and malignant cells. A T cell is a type
of white blood cell. Also called T lymphocyte.
Therapeutic vaccine A type of therapy that uses a substance
or group of substances to stimulate the immune system
to destroy a tumor or infectious microorganisms, such as
bacteria or viruses.
Tumor An abnormal mass of tissue that results when cells
divide more than they should or do not die when they
should. Tumors may be benign (not cancer) or malignant
(cancer). Also called neoplasm.
Tumor microenvironment ;e normal cells, molecules,
and blood vessels that surround and feed a cancer cell.
A cancer can change its microenvironment, and the
microenvironment can a;ect how a tumor grows and
Tumor suppressor gene A type of gene that makes a protein
called a tumor suppressor protein, which helps control cell
growth. Mutations (changes in DNA) in tumor suppressor
genes may lead to cancer. Also called antioncogene.
Uterine cancer Cancer that forms in cells of the uterus.
;ere are two types of uterine cancer: endometrial cancer,
which begins in cells lining the uterus; and uterine sarcoma,
which arises in muscle or other cells of the uterus.
Vaccine A substance or group of substances meant to
cause the immune system to respond to a tumor or to
microorganisms, such as bacteria or viruses. A vaccine
can help the body recognize and destroy cancer cells or
Waldenström macroglobulinemia A rare, indolent (
slow-growing) type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma that arises in
B cells (see B cell). ;e lymphoma cells accumulate in
the bone marrow, lymph nodes, and spleen. Also called