Hypercalcemia - Higher than normal levels of calcium in the blood. Some types
of cancer increase the risk of hypercalcemia. This condition can occur following
metastasis of some cancers to the bone.
Inflammation - Redness, swelling, pain, and/or a feeling of heat in an area of
the body. This is a protective reaction to injury, disease, or irritation of the
Immune system - A diffuse, complex network of interacting cells, cell products,
and cell-forming tissues that protects the body from pathogens and other
foreign substances, destroys infected and malignant cells, and removes cellular
debris. The immune system includes the thymus, spleen, lymph nodes and
lymph tissue, stem cells, white blood cells, antibodies, and lymphokines.
Immunotherapy - Treatment designed to produce immunity to a disease or
enhance the resistance of the immune system to an active disease process, as
Incidence - The number of new cases of a disease diagnosed each year.
Kinase - A type of enzyme that causes other molecules in the cell to become
active. Some kinases work by adding chemicals, called phosphates, to other
molecules, such as sugars or proteins. Kinases are a part of many cell
processes. Some cancer treatments target certain kinases that are linked to
KRAS gene - A gene that may cause cancer when it is mutated (changed). The
KRAS gene makes the K-Ras protein, which is involved in cell signaling
pathways, cell growth, and apoptosis (cell death). Agents that block the activity
of the mutated KRAS gene or its protein may stop the growth of cancer.
Laparoscopy - A procedure that uses a laparoscope, inserted through the
abdominal wall, to examine the inside of the abdomen. A laparoscope is a thin,
tube-like instrument with a light and a lens for viewing. It may also have a tool
to remove tissue to be checked under a microscope for signs of disease.
Leukemia - Cancer that starts in blood-forming tissue such as the bone
marrow and causes large numbers of blood cells to be produced and enter the
Lesion - An area of abnormal tissue. A lesion may be benign (not cancer) or
Lumpectomy - Surgery to remove abnormal tissue or cancer from the breast
and a small amount of normal tissue around it. It is a type of breast-sparing
Lymphangiogenesis - is the formation of lymphatic vessels from pre-existing
lymphatic vessels, using a mechanism similar to blood vessel development or
angiogenesis. Lymphangiogenesis plays an important physiological role in
homeostasis, metabolism and immunity. Lymphatic vessel formation has also
been implicated in a number of pathological conditions including cancer
metastasis, edema, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis and impaired wound healing.
Lymphatic vessels (system) - The tissues and organs that produce, store, and
carry white blood cells that fight infections and other diseases. This system
includes the bone marrow, spleen, thymus, lymph nodes, and lymphatic vessels
(a network of thin tubes that carry lymph and white blood cells). Lymphatic
vessels branch, like blood vessels, into all the tissues of the body.
Macular degeneration - A condition in which there is a slow breakdown of
cells in the center of the retina (the light-sensitive layers of nerve tissue at the
back of the eye). This blocks vision in the center of the eye and can cause
problems with activities such as reading and driving. Macular degeneration is
most often seen in people who are over the age of 50. Also called age-related
macular degeneration, AMD, and ARMD.
Mammography - The use of film or a computer to create a picture of the
Mary Lasker - (November 30, 1900 – February 21, 1994) was an American
health activist. With her husband Albert Lasker, they transformed the American
Cancer Society into an effective advocacy organization, founded the Lasker
Foundation, raised record funds for research, and were instrumental in the
passage of the 1971 National Cancer Act.
Mastectomy - Surgery to remove the breast (or as much of the breast tissue as
Medullary thyroid cancer - Cancer that develops in C cells of the thyroid. The
C cells make a hormone (calcitonin) that helps maintain a healthy level of
calcium in the blood.
Melanoma - A form of cancer that begins in melanocytes (cells that make the
pigment melanin). It may begin in a mole (skin melanoma), but can also begin in
other pigmented tissues, such as in the eye or in the intestines.
Metastasis - The spread of cancer from one part of the body to another. A
tumor formed by cells that have spread is called a “metastatic tumor” or a
“metastasis.” The metastatic tumor contains cells that are like those in the
original (primary) tumor. The plural form of metastasis is metastases.
Microbiome - A microbiome is the totality of microbes, or microorganisms,
their genomes, and environmental interactions in a defined environment. The
human microbiome contains over 10 times more microbes than human cells.
Multiple myeloma - A type of cancer that begins in plasma cells (white blood
cells that produce antibodies). Also called Kahler disease, myelomatosis, and
plasma cell myeloma.
Mutation - Any change in the DNA of a cell. Mutations may be caused by
mistakes during cell division, or they may be caused by exposure to DNA-damaging agents in the environment. Mutations can be harmful, beneficial, or
have no effect. If they occur in cells that make eggs or sperm, they can be
inherited; if mutations occur in other types of cells, they are not inherited.
Certain mutations may lead to cancer or other diseases.
Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) - A group of diseases in which the bone
marrow does not make enough healthy blood cells. Also called preleukemia and
Nanotechnology - A technology executed on the scale 1000 times smaller than
a millimeter, the goal of which is to control individual atoms and molecules,
especially to create computer chips and other microscopic devices.
Neoadjuvant therapy - Treatment given as a first step to shrink a tumor before
the main treatment is given, which is usually surgery. Examples of neoadjuvant
therapy include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and hormone therapy.
Non-small cell lung carcinoma - A group of lung cancers that are named for
the kinds of cells found in the cancer and how the cells look under a
microscope. The three main types of non-small cell lung cancer are squamous
cell carcinoma, large cell carcinoma, and adenocarcinoma. Non-small cell lung
cancer is the most common kind of lung cancer.
Oncogene - A gene that is a mutated (changed) form of a gene involved in
normal cell growth. Oncogenes may cause the growth of cancer cells.
Mutations in genes that become oncogenes can be inherited or caused by being
exposed to substances in the environment that cause cancer.